Emergency Provisions in the Indian Constitution: An Exhaustive Analysis
Authored by: Gaurav, LL.B, School of Law, Lovely Professional University
Introduction: Grasping the Significance of Emergency Provisions
The Indian Constitution's emergency provisions are meticulously crafted to protect the nation and its citizens during times of crisis. These provisions acknowledge the need for extraordinary powers in exceptional circumstances, and are a testament to the foresight of the Constitution's framers. This blog aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of these provisions, unraveling their implications and historical applications.
Article 352 of the Indian Constitution allows for the declaration of a National Emergency in situations where India's security is threatened by war, external aggression or armed rebellion. The President can make such a proclamation solely on the written advice of the Cabinet. Parliamentary approval is required within one month, or the emergency lapses. Extensions are subject to parliamentary endorsement every six months.
The President can declare a National Emergency based on the Cabinet's written advice, requiring approval from both houses of Parliament within one month. The emergency's extension is contingent upon parliamentary approval every six months.
Effects on Fundamental Rights:
During a National Emergency, the rights enshrined in Article 19 (freedoms of speech, assembly, etc.) are automatically suspended. Additionally, the President may suspend the right to seek judicial intervention for the enforcement of other rights.
Historical Events of National Emergency:
- 1962 Indo-China War: The first instance occurred in 1962 during the Indo-China War.
- 1971 Indo-Pakistan War: The second instance was in 1971 during the Indo-Pakistan War.
While the National Emergency provision empowers the government to take swift and effective measures during crises, its historical misuse, especially in the 1975 Emergency, necessitates a meticulous reevaluation of the governing laws.
2. State Emergency or President’s Rule (Article 356):
A State Emergency can be declared if the President, upon receiving a report from the State Governor, is satisfied that the state's government cannot function in accordance with the Constitution. During such an emergency, the President can assume some or all functions of the State government, and Parliament can legislate for the State. The proclamation requires approval from both Houses of Parliament within two months, extendable for a maximum of three years with parliamentary approval every six months. It is also known as President’s Rule.
The Supreme Court's 1994 judgment in S. R. Bommai v. Union of India curtailed arbitrary impositions of President’s Rule, significantly curbing the misuse of Article 356 of the Constitution of India.
While President’s Rule is indispensable for preserving constitutional integrity, its misuse has prompted criticism and calls for reform. The landmark judgment in the S. R. Bommai case marked a substantial step in preventing its arbitrary imposition. However, debates on its necessity and potential for misuse persist in discussions on Indian polity.
Financial Emergency (Article 360):
A Financial Emergency can be declared when the financial stability or credit of India or any part of its territory is threatened. The President of India has the authority to proclaim a Financial Emergency if they are satisfied that the financial stability or credit of India or any part of its territory is jeopardized.
During a Financial Emergency, the executive authority of the Union extends to giving directions to any State to observe specified canons of financial propriety. The President can also issue directions for the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving in the State.
Unlike the National Emergency, a Financial Emergency does not require parliamentary approval for indefinite continuation.
Effects on the States and the Citizens:
During a Financial Emergency, the President can direct the states to observe certain canons of financial propriety. The President can also direct that all Money Bills or other Financial Bills require their approval before they are introduced in the state legislature. Additionally, salaries of government officials, including judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, can be reduced.
The provision for a Financial Emergency is aimed at ensuring the financial stability of the country. Though it has never been invoked, it remains a vital tool for the Central Government to intervene in extraordinary financial situations. The checks and balances in its implementation ensure that it cannot be misused without serious cause, highlighting the careful consideration of the framers of the Constitution in balancing power and responsibility.
Effect of Emergency: The Transformation of Governance
When an emergency is declared, it significantly affects the governance of the nation and the rights of its citizens. It changes the balance of power between the central government and the state governments and may even lead to the suspension of citizens' Fundamental Rights. Additionally, it broadens the legislative authority of Parliament to encompass matters that were previously under the jurisdiction of the state governments.
Landmark Cases: Judicial Interpretation of Emergency Provisions
Makhan Singh Vs. State of Punjab: This case dealt with the suspension of Article 19 during a National Emergency. The court held that the detention of the petitioner was legal and valid as it was done under a law protected by Article 359(1).
A.D.M. Jabalpur Vs. Shivkant Shukla: This case is one of the most controversial decisions in the history of the Indian judiciary. The Supreme Court held that during the period of Emergency, a person’s right to not be unlawfully detained (Article 21) can be suspended.
These cases highlight the tension between the need for strong central authority during emergencies and the protection of individual rights. They also underscore the importance of judicial review in ensuring that the emergency provisions of the Constitution are not misused.
Conclusion: A Balanced View on Emergency Provisions
In conclusion, the emergency provisions in the Indian Constitution are a double-edged sword. They are necessary for the nation’s security and stability, but they also have the potential to undermine democratic principles if not used judiciously. Therefore, it is essential to have robust checks and balances in place to prevent their misuse.
- Constitution of India, 1950.
- A.D.M. Jabalpur Vs. Shivkant Shukla.
- S.R. Bommai Vs Union of India.